Canine anal gland adenocarcinoma
An anal sac adenocarcinoma is an uncommon and aggressive malignant tumor found in dogs that arises from the apocrine glandular tissue of anal sac. The disease exists in cats as well, but is much less common in that species. Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas first appear as small lumps associated with one of the anal sacs rarely bilateral , but they can grow to a large size. Smaller tumors are undetectable without a rectal examination , while larger tumors can cause pain and straining to defecate. Between 25 and 40 percent of dogs with these tumors will also develop hypercalcaemia  through secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein by the tumor.
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Anal Sac Adenocarcinoma - Metropolitan Veterinary Associates
Hypercalcemia is a common paraneoplastic syndrome in dogs with AGACAC because of tumor cell production of parathyroid hormone-related protein. Metastasis to the sublumbar lymph nodes and lungs is also common. Rectal examination is important for the diagnosis of an anal sac mass and assessment of enlarged sublumbar lymph nodes. Blood tests including ionized or total calcium levels are important for determining health status for surgery and prognostic information.
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Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals
Other treatment modalities include radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the role of these treatments has not been clearly determined yet. Pre-operative medical support is provided as required. In particular, severe hypercalcaemia of malignancy HM; i. Management of HM is beyond the scope of this text and is widely detailed elsewhere
The tumour is invasive with a high mortality rate. The cancerous cells may invade regional lymph nodes and travel to the spine, lungs, liver and spleen via the bloodstream. The tumour may go unnoticed in the early stages and an abnormal mass or swelling in the region of the anus perineal area may only be recognised when the growth is large. Other signs of anal sac adenocarcinoma include problems with defecation, local pain or irritation, excessive drinking and urination, hind limb weakness and lethargy. The tumour cells produce a protein, parathyroid hormone related protein, which causes increased calcium levels in the blood, and may lead to hypercalcaemia.
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